●斑斓阅读系列中重构古埃及 The ancient Egyptians are an enduring source of fascination--mummies and pyramids, curses and rituals have captured our imaginations for generations. We all have a mental picture of ancient Egypt, but is it the right one? How much do we really know about this once great civilization? In this absorbing introduction, Ian Shaw, one of the foremost authorities on Ancient Egypt, describes how our current ideas about Egypt are based not only on the thrilling discoveries made by early Egyptologists but also on fascinating new kinds of evidence produced by modern scientific and linguistic analyses. He also explores the changing influences on our responses to these finds, by examining the impact of Egyptology on various aspects of popular culture such as literature, cinema, opera, and contemporary art. He considers all aspects of ancient Egyptian culture, from tombs and mummies to the discovery of artefacts and the decipherment of hieroglyphs, and from despotic pharaohs to animal-headed gods. From the general reader interested in Ancient Egypt, to students and teachers of ancient history and archaeology, to museum-goers, this Very Short Introduction will not disappoint. Be careful to buy this book only if you want to learn about Egyptology as an academic discipline, more than about what scholars think really went on in ancient Egypt. This book is a learned and fascinating introduction to the study of ancient Egypt. If you are looking to understand how scholars painstakingly piece together tiny shards of ambiguous and insufficient evidence to construct an understanding of ancient Egypt, this is your book. If you seek a primer the current state of knowledge on life, religion, politics, culture, and society in ancient Egypt, you should probably buy another book. I bought the book out of a desire to learn more about what current scholarly thinking about ancient Egypt in order to open up a window on that fascinating civilization. Instead, I discovered a compelling (if dry) narrative on how Egyptologists work and reach conclusions. This is a really interesting topic in its own right, and, of course, it is fundamental to evaluating what is presented as "what we know" about ancient Egypt in an intelligent fashion. However, you might not want to spend time learning about Egyptology, but instead want to learn about ancient Egypt. If so, this is likely not the book for you right now The title of this excellent entry in an excellent series should be 'Egyptology', as it is more about the study of ancient Egypt than the history itself. At 190 pages, it is a little longer than many entries in this series, but the final 30 of those pages are References, Timeline and so on, which provide a good springboard for further study. Pharaonic Egypt was Earth's first great empire and it lasted for 3 millennia. The author examines the way in which that civilization has been perceived, interpreted and mythologized by, among others, Victorians seeking verification of Biblical stories and by modern, popular culture. Ian Shaw writes well and comes across as an erudite and objective scholar. He has not used this book as an opportunity to put forward any unorthodoxy of his own, and has not been afraid to include many quotations from other Egyptologists. All of this makes the book a perfect introduction to this fascinating subject. agree with the other reviewers that this book is not so much about Ancient Egypt as it is about Egyptology. I would say it even expects a previous knowledge of the periods and dynasties of Ancient Egypt. In that respect it fails to live up to its title. As a book about Egyptology it's slightly dry and not very tight. The author seems to be all over the place. After reading this book, I have learned very little of Egyptology as a discipline except for a few theories expounded in the text. I would not recommend this book. I am interested in reading Egyptian Myth: A very short introduction as a possible better introduction to Egyptian history, myths, and beliefs. 2 I knew absolutely nothing about ancient Egypt and cared less. I was still fascinated by this book and inspired to follow it up. It starts with the Narmer Palette, an artefact in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, and uses the decoration on both sides, pictures and hieroglyphs, to explain some of the things we think we know about ancient Egypt and how we think we know them. It's thought the elegantly outlined depression between the serpopards was used for crushing pigment for eyeshadow....serpopards? Leopards with the heads and neck of snakes. The book goes on to look specifically at how we establish the narrative history of ancient history (or rather, perhaps, speculate about it rather than establish it), the roles of kings, and the issues of identity (the significance of race and gender in particular) and of religion (mummification, the pyramids and so on). Ancient Egypt really was ancient - the Pharaonic period started 5000 years ago and the timeline in the book goes further back than that - and covered a very long period, lasting into the Roman era AD. It's not surprising perhaps that it's very hard to "know" much, and of course, things will have changed quite a lot in the thousands of years covered by the Egyptian era. In particular the book exposes some of the conflicts between archeologists, who look at what's left of the buildings and artifacts, and those who read and interpret the writing and hieroglyphs found on them. It had never occurred to me that there might be a division like that. There is an outline of the rise of Egyptology in the nineteenth century, the mistakes made by early investigators which may have destroyed important evidence (and why they made the mistakes), and, finally some discussion of the impact of ancient Egypt on the twentieth century. This short section gives equal space to the Anthony and Cleopatras of Burton and Taylor on the one hand and of Kenneth Williams and Amanda Barrie on the other - this book has its feet on the ground. There are good illustrations to support the text (full-page photos of both sides of the Narmer Palette, for example, so you see exactly what the author is writing about), a glossary and several pages of further reading and useful websites. I was really surprised at being drawn in so thoroughly. Fascinating introduction. 斑斓阅读系列之意识新探 The last great mystery for science, consciousness has become a controversial topic. Consciousness: A Very Short Introduction challenges readers to reconsider key concepts such as personality, free will, and the soul. How can a physical brain create our experience of the world? What creates our identity? Do we really have free will? Could consciousness itself be an illusion? Exciting new developments in brain science are opening up these debates, and the field has now expanded to include biologists, neuroscientists, psychologists, and philosophers. This book clarifies the potentially confusing arguments and clearly describes the major theories, with illustrations and lively cartoons to help explain the experiments. Topics include vision and attention, theories of self, experiments on action and awareness, altered states of consciousness, and the effects of brain damage and drugs. This lively, engaging, and authoritative book provides a clear overview of the subject that combines the perspectives of philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience--and serves as a much-needed launch pad for further exploration of this complicated and unsolved issue. I have to admit that at first I dismissed this little introduction to consciousness, but then I read the book again. It's a gem. Blackmore makes it all clear right up front what the problem of consciousness is and several ways that consciousness might be defined. She considers whether consciousness is some integral feature of brain processes or something in addition to the physical features of the brain (a position that goes by the clumsy name of "epiphenomenalism"). Next she talks about a last Cartesian seduction in the thinking of some materialists called "the Cartesian theatre", a phrase coined by Daniel Dennett that means that some scientists have embraced the material operation of the brain but still believe that consciousness is something that appears at a place and time in the brain. It as if there is a little theatre in the brain where consciousness is played. Blackmore next questions the natural or intuitive idea that consciousness is present in a continuous stream: this is a grand illusion and how the brain may create this illusion is investigated. She focuses on visual perceptual consciousness and presents research that questions our natural understanding of what is going on with our brains while we experience the world. There follows a consideration of "the self" (a useful construction, it seems), conscious will, and altered states of consciousness (psychedelic drugs, meditation, and out-of-body experiences). All in all this is a brief, but very clear and stimulating discussion of consciousness. I find it remarkable that so much was packed in a little volume that left me stimulated and grateful instead of exhausted, bored, or confused. It's just a great place to begin trying to get a grip on what the fuss is and why consciousness is such a curious and marvelous phenomenon. No one book can cover all there is to say about the burgening field of Consciousness Studies of Consciousness Research, but this book comes as close as any one up-to-date one can; furthermore, it has all the usual physical advantages of Oxford University Press' "Very Short Introduction" titles: small enough to actually fit into a pockes yet so well bound that when carried so the spine will never crack nor pages ever fall out. Susan Blackmore's experience as a Zen meditator adds depth to the section on altered states of consciousness as well as to her final summary on the future of consciousness and consciousness research. A minor disappointment was the abscence of any treatment of Artificial Intelligence and the philosophical problems it raises, especially unfortunate since she sha covered that subtopic well and thoroughly in a longer book. Also some cartoon drawings are rudimentary and add little to the text, but on the other hand, some photographic, do-it-yourself demonstrations of how our conciousness differs from what we believe we introspectively know it to be are excellent. Another positive for any book but especially one suitable as an initial introduction to a topic is an excellent bibliography for further reading. 2 I first encountered Blackmore's work when, after searching long and hard for a scientific explanation of out-of-body experiences, I came across her book Beyond the Body. It was astonishingly well researched and offered a rational, convincing explanation for phenomena that were usually neglected by the scientific community. I became an instant fan and have followed her work ever since. But now, alas, she has aligned herself with the Dawkins/Dennett axis of drivel, and my loyalty to her is badly shaken. In this book (a shorter version of her Consciousness: An Introduction) she follows Dennett by denying the existence of consciousness and then indulging in much speculation about the properties and evolutionary history of this non-existent entity. Consciousness, she maintains, is an 'illusion', which she defines as something that exists but does not have the properties it appears to have. She then proceeds to discuss it as if it does not in fact exist, and slips into calling it a 'delusion', which she apparently regards as a synonymous term. So far, so Dennett. She follows Dawkins by labeling just about everything a 'meme' (as Poe might have said 'All that we see or seem is but a meme within a meme'), unless she happens not to approve of it, in which case it is 'a virus of the mind'. As an example, she indulges in a quite intemperate and completely irrelevant rant against religion, in which Roman Catholicism is described as a parasitic infection. Like Dennett and Dawkins, she leaves no axe unground. So why do I give the book 5 stars if I disagree with so much of it? Well, I guess you can't keep a good scientist down, and Blackmore is still a great scientist. She brings considerable knowledge and erudition to the subject, presents fair summaries of opposing views, and gives excellent descriptions of odd phenomena like Libet's Delay and the Cutaneous Rabbit. And her style is as readable as ever. I was suspicious when I saw that her son Jolyon had contributed many of the illustrations - it smacked of nepotism - but I have to say his drawings are really charming and add greatly to the text. The other illustrations are useful too - with the possible exception of a photograph of the author opening a fridge door - which isn't always the case with this series. The book ends with a very useful Further Reading list. It's thus an excellent introduction to the subject (although I think John Searle's The Mystery of Consciousness is still the best place to start). So, I shall keep the faith and continue to read everything Susan Blackmore publishes. I just hope that one day, just as she once abandoned a belief in the paranormal, she sees the light and abandons the axis of drivel. 3Scientists try to approach the function of the human brain just as they approach the functioning of any other organ in our bodies: as a natural feature of the natural world. According to this view, what we call our "mind" is dependent upon the physical brain, making the mind just as natural and material as other biological processes like digestion. Even so, it's difficult to entirely escape the lure of dualism — the view that "mind" is completely separate from and independent of the physical brain. Usually dualism is accompanied by the belief that the mind is basically the soul — an immaterial, eternal "thing" which represents our true selves. This view has been promoted by theistic religions for millennia. Because research into the nature and functioning of the brain is still in its relatively early stages, there's a lot of open ground and disputed ideas. Scientific researchers are not united behind a single explanation or way of conceptualizing how the brain creates the mind and consciousness. This means that there is a lot to read and digest before you can claim to at least understand where the current research stands — but fortunately there is a good place to start. Susan Blackmore's Consciousness: A Very Short Introduction is part of Oxford University Press "very short introduction" series and, like other volumes, does a great job at explaining even complicated issues in a way that is comprehensible and engaging for even a general audience. Perhaps the most significant problem in the study of human consciousness is whether there is real problem there or not. Some argue that there are "easy problems" like explaining how processes like perception and memory work, then the "hard problem" of explaining how consciousness itself works. Others argue that there is no "hard problem" because if we can explain all the "easy problems," then we will have explained consciousness (or at least the explanation for consciousness will immediately and obviously follow). The difference can stated as: is consciousness an "extra thing" or "extra ingredient" in our minds, or is any sufficiently advanced mental processing system also necessarily "conscious"? For many religious theists, this question necessarily turns on the existence of a soul. Machines and robots cannot be "conscious," for example, because they cannot have souls — only God can imbue a living being with a soul and it cannot automatically appear simply because a system becomes complex enough. Even some scientists who don't believe in souls will agree that simply having all the same parts and complexities as a human brain would not lead to consciousness, but many others think that it would. This means that efforts to create a "conscious" machine will have profound implications for the common belief in dualism, souls, and a "mind" that is immaterial, supernatural, and separate from the physical brain. Like most scientists and researchers, Blackmore rejects the traditional religious explanations for the mind: she rejects dualism, she rejects the existence of a mind or soul that is independent of the brain, and she rejects the idea that the mind is in any way eternal. Consciousness: A Very Short Introduction, by Susan BlackmoreBlackmore goes further than most, however, and is inclined to believe that even the existence of a coherent, consistent "self" is likely an illusion. Most scientists seem to be trying to hold on to this, and intuitively it is something that seems to be true. There is a significant amount of evidence and logic which suggests otherwise, though — and if it's true that our traditional, intuitive notion of consistent self is wrong, then what does this say about the existence of a soul? Although Susan Blackmore certainly has her own views, this doesn't interfere with her explanations — readers won't get the feeling that she is only setting up straw men to attack or that she's giving short shrift to views she doesn't accept. She doesn't hide her own perspective, but she also doesn't let it get in the way of giving readers a broad education in where current research stands, what different researchers think, and of course possible problems with it all. Blackmore doesn't cover everything, of course, nor could she in a short introduction like this. Yet she does cover plenty, and anyone simply looking for an overview of the field will get all they need. If someone would like more detailed information, a good follow-up would be Blackmore's Conversations on Consciousness, where she interviews many leading researchers to ask them what they think and why.
●读《白雪皇后》有感 假期里，空闲时间我抽空阅读了《安徒生童话》。其中《白雪皇后》这个富有想象力的童话故事，给我留下了深刻的印象。 故事讲述的是一个魔鬼打碎了颠倒黑白的镜子，只要碎片落在人们的眼睛里，粉末落在人们的心里，那个人就会变地像石头一样冷漠无情。加伊就是这样变成了一个冷漠的人，所有的人都不喜欢他。后来加伊被白雪皇后带走了。他的好友格尔达就去找加伊。她历尽了千难万险，终于找到了加伊，可是加伊变成了一个冷漠的人，格尔达十分伤心。她费尽努力终于感动了加伊，他的泪水冲走了碎片和粉沫，加伊变回来了。最后他们踏上了归途，回到了家里，过上了幸福的生活。 读完了这篇文章，女孩格尔达为了友情，勇敢地寻找朋友帮助朋友的精神，十分让我感动。这篇童话教我们认识了人的品性的善与恶，道德的优与劣，人格的高与低。这篇童话的感情色彩十分强烈，无情的揭露了虚伪与欺骗，热情的讴歌了友爱与善良，充满了对我们的鼓励。 我们要像格尔达学习，做一个珍惜友情，关心朋友和同学的好学生。
●依据《中华人民共和国合同法》8条、依法成立的合同对当事人具有法律约束力，当事人应当按照合同的约定履行自己的义务，不得随意变更或者解除依法成立的合同受法律保护107条、当事人一方不履行合同义务或者履行合同义务不符合约定，应当承担继续履行、采取补救措施或者赔偿损失等违约责任综上，只要你与车主的合同意思表达真实，不存在欺诈、胁迫、重大误解、显失公平等符合无效或者可撤销的情形，那么该合同依法成立依法成立的合同受法律保护在车主单方违约的情形下，你有权要求继续履行合同、采取补救措施或者赔偿损失这属于对方违约后 应当承担的违约责任你可以持合同与对方交涉 交涉未果可以发起诉讼 来维护合法权益
●浅谈如何提高执行力-读《没有任何借口》有感 《没有任何借口》，讲述了一种完美的执行能力。即对待工作，千万别找任何借口，要时时刻刻、事事处处体现出服从、诚实的态度和负责、敬业的精神。结合到我们企业来说，笔者认为要提高各级人员的执行能力，必须解决好“想执行”和“会执行”的问题，把执行变为自动自发自觉的行动。下面，就此浅谈一点个人的认识。 一、 提高执行力就要做到加强学习，更新观念 日常工作中，我们在执行某项任务时，总会遇到一些问题。而对待问题有两种选择。一种是不怕问题，想方设法解决问题，千方百计消灭问题，结果是圆满完成任务;一种是面对问题，一筹莫展，不思进取，结果是问题依然存在，任务也不会完成。反思对待问题的两种选择和两个结果，我们会不由自主的问到，同是一项工作，为什么有的人能够做得很好，有的人却做不到呢?关键是一个思想观念认识的问题。我们常说，观念决定思路，思路决定出路。观念转、天地宽，观念的力量是无穷的。一些成功企业也认为，有什么样的思想观念，就有什么样的工作效果。观念转变，思想解放具有“核裂变”效应，能够产生推动发展的不竭动力。只有转变观念，解放思想，企业才能始终保持快速发展，才能始终充满蓬勃旺盛的精力。综观我们白庄矿近年来所取得的超常规、跨越式发展，正是思想先行、观念解放的必然结果。实践证明，如果不是破除了“等靠要”的旧的思想认识，树立了新的改革创新发展观念，正确施行了科学的管理手段，就不会有我们白庄煤矿辉煌的今天。由此，我们要认识到，任何一个企业的发展，不仅仅是战略决策，经营规划等等，更重要的是各级人员的执行能力。对待日常工作，不要总是找借口，要从自身出发，不断加强学习更新观念，不断分析认识提高自己，改变不执行不作为的不良习惯，自动自发地做好本职工作。 二、 提高执行力就要做到诚实做人，认真做事 我们常说，诚诚实实做人，认认真真做事。做人要有一个做人的标准，做事也要有一个做事的原则。但具体到实际工作中，常常是有制度，有措施，也有违章。究其原因，就是一个态度问题，一个责任感强不强的问题，一个做人是否诚实、做事是否认真的问题。联系到一些企业“做强做大”的发展格局，就象我们白庄矿一样，企业规模越来越大，更需要我们树立一种积极向上的工作态度，诚实认真地执行好企业的每一项决策。紧紧围绕单位安全生产经营，上标准岗、干标准活，做标准人，正确履行各项工作。要时刻牢记执行工作，没有任何借口，要视服从为美德;工作中无小事，工作就意味着责任，无论在任何岗位，无论做什么工作，都要怀着热情、带着情感去做，而且要竭尽全力、尽职尽责地做好。就象青岛港务公司员工许振超那样，爱岗敬业，干事创业。对待工作，从来不说不行，明知困难重重，也要坚决去执行。别人不会干的，他能干，别人会干的，他更会干。 三、 提高执行力就要做到面对困难，勇往直前 唯物辩证法认为，任何事物的发展都不是一帆风顺的，毛泽东同志也说过，我们*党人不怕任何困难，世上无难事，只怕有心人。回想我们白庄矿近年来的改革发展，尤其让我们引以自豪的是在煤炭疲软时期，企业生产、生活福利非常艰苦，但我们却在那样困难的条件下，平稳地渡过了难关。今天，在千米井下，在有顶板管理、煤尘、瓦斯、水、运输等灾害威胁的环境里，采掘一线的职工克服常人难以想像的困难，保质保量地完成生产任务。还有远在百里之外的职工舍小家、顾大家，为企业的可持续发展做着无私的奉献。这些感人的事迹，充分体现了高度的纪律性和大局意识，这也正是企业员工在执行中必须要坚持的，记住，这是你的工作，无论你在工作中遇到多大的困难，你都要全力以赴完成它。 四、 提高执行力就要认识到没有最好，只有更好 当一个人在工作中做出优异成绩，受到表彰奖励时，总是说，我做得还不够，还要继续努力，争取更大的成绩。这是一种戒骄戒躁和诚实谦虚的表现，但也同时说明了一个道理，那就是，无论干什么工作，做什么事，虽然取得了一定的成绩，但绝不是最终的，只能算是阶段性的胜利。还要再接再厉，好上加好。比如，近年来，我们白庄煤矿积极应对市场经济的新形势，正确执行集团公司一系列指示、指令，不断解放思想，更新观念，对内强化现场管理， 坚持科学合理地生产，始终走在全局的前列，但纵观同行业兄弟单位，我们的差距还很大，我们的担子还很重，我们还没有骄傲的资本，也正因为我们没有骄傲，才会更加务实地工作，更加科学地决策，更加积极主动地努力工作，又创出了新的业绩。 总之，执行力是企业的核心竞争力。面对市场经济的大潮，我们要想立于不败之地，就必须要提高执行力，精心打造这一核心竞争力。
●有关“活着”与“幸福”——读《活着》有感 一、“活着”的深意 “活着”是忍受,去忍受生命赋予我们的责任,去忍受现实给予我们的幸福和苦难,无聊与平庸。 福贵,这个曾经风光一时的富家少爷因为年轻时无所顾忌的胡闹和为所欲为毁掉了自己和家人一生的幸福。他终于在贫困中觉悟,也许那并不算迟。可厄运的阴影一直追随着他的脚步,残暴地夺走每一个与他有缘的人的生命,毫不同情。他的父母在家境败落后相继死去,丧失此文来源于文秘写作网女的伤痛还未平复,与自己同甘共苦的妻此文来源于文秘写作网也离他而去。最后,连他唯一的孙此文来源于文秘写作网也没有逃过死神的魔掌,只剩下他一个人孤独地活着。 福贵亲手埋葬了六个至亲至此文来源于文秘写作网的人。不知是命运对他的特别眷顾或是另一种惩罚,他活了下来。在历经了那么多另人难以想象的苦难之后,他学会了忍受,忍受生活的重压。他只是很单纯地为了活着而活着。 记得有那样一句话： 生活就是人生的田地,每一个被播种的苦难都会长成为一个希望,他们就是我们的双手。不管身上承受着什么,不管脖此文来源于文秘写作网上套着什么,不管肩上负载着什么。 犹记得两年前看《活着》时的感受——心痛。 “有庆不会在这条路上跑来了。” 我看着那条弯曲着通向城里的小路,听不到我儿此文来源于文秘写作网赤脚跑来的声音,月光照在路上,像是洒满了盐。 为了救县长的女人,有庆可以说是被害死了。看到这里我流泪了,尽管怀疑故事的真实性,却始终感到沉重。因为当时社会复杂的人际关系,有庆送掉了年轻的生命。我一直无法释怀,眼前总是浮现出一个瘦小的男孩举着鞋,朝我跑来.他分明是笑着,我却看到了他眼底的悲哀。 二、简单的幸福 “我也不想要什么福分,只求每年都给你做一双新鞋。” 只要一家人天天在一起,也许这就是家珍所认定的幸福.两年前看完《活着》,很多细节都已经模糊了,可是家珍的这句话却深深地刻在我的记忆里,直到现在依然如此清晰。只有经历过分离之苦的人才知家人团聚的真实可贵吧。 我总是因为无法得到上天的特别眷顾而抱怨命运的不公。从儿时眼馋玩伴手中的洋娃娃,到现在羡慕女友的美丽出众，我一直扮演那个自卑的角色。母亲说我总是把目光停留在未知的远方,而忽略了身边唾手可得的小幸福。我不信,我不正是因为找不到所谓的幸福,才那么努力地追求吗？ 直到看到家珍的话,我突然感到茫然,曾经执着着的梦想也开始变得模糊。难道真的是我错了吗?我开始回忆过去的点滴：每天早晨母亲比闹钟还准时的morningcall,在自修课上和同桌狂吃零食,傍晚一家人围在桌前吃饭,热气给父亲的眼镜片蒙上一层白雾……我发现自己拥有的太多，也正因为自己拥有，才觉得它们似乎是可有可无的。 前些天，一个好友打电话来说她父亲车祸被送进了医院，好在并不是很严重，只要留院观察几天。我一边安慰她，一边想，此刻父亲可能也正开着车穿梭在这拥挤城市的某个角落吧，不禁有些担心。突然发觉，我可以什么都不要，只希望一家人能平平安安的，晚上可以吃到父亲的拿手好菜，听到母亲越来越亲切的唠叨…… 几天后，好友一脸喜悦地告诉我，她父亲出院了。看着她脸上洋溢
●党颂 中庸行道事可为， 共思仁政为民生． 无私下乡暖群众， 能图发展定乾坤． 忍多风雨非叹苦， 让名让利不曾昏． 日照神州众人喜， 本乐国民自可闻． 十一一会成名路， 年岁朝夕有几浑． 动静结合行巧事， 乱拼乱闯非我能． 毁旧创新研科技， 尽育天下读书魂． 能思善想搞经济， 人人小康乐天伦． 教得干部为人民， 育以实事付苍生． 不贪不腐自不苦， 周而复始心为诚． 误无错少尽己力， 人才倍出有新朋． 子观世道风云辈， 弟随哥业建国城． 贪污犯罪日益少， 官清人杰工作真． 污染防治护环境， 吏以法制定是非． 万载千秋国不衰， 世世代代永为恒． 长思来者可忆顾， 存一忠心报国门．